By Dogan Ibrahim
This e-book is perfect for the engineer, technician, hobbyist and scholar who've wisdom of the elemental ideas of PIC microcontrollers and wish to boost extra complex functions utilizing the 18F series.The structure of the PIC 18FXXX sequence in addition to commonplace oscillator, reset, reminiscence, and input-output circuits is totally targeted. After giving an creation to programming in C, the publication describes the undertaking improvement cycle in complete, giving information of the method of enhancing, compilation, errors dealing with, programming and using particular improvement instruments. the majority of the ebook offers complete info of attempted and established hands-on initiatives, equivalent to the 12C BUS, USB BUS, CAN BUS, SPI BUS and real-time working structures.
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Extra info for Advanced PIC Microcontroller Projects in C: From USB to ZIGBEE with the PIC 18F Series
Floating point numbers are used in most engineering and technical calculations. The most common floating point standard is the IEEE standard, according to which floating point numbers are represented with 32 bits (single precision) or 64 bits (double precision). In this section we are looking at the format of 32-bit floating point numbers only and seeing how mathematical operations can be performed with such numbers. com 32 Chapter 1 According to the IEEE standard, 32-bit floating point numbers are represented as: 31 30 23 22 0 X XXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX " " " sign exponent mantissa The most significant bit indicates the sign of the number, where 0 indicates the number is positive, and 1 indicates it is negative.
To make the calculations easy, the sign of the exponent is not shown; instead, the excess-128 numbering system is used. Thus, to find the real exponent we have to subtract 127 from the given exponent. For example, if the mantissa is “10000000,” the real value of the mantissa is 128 – 127 ¼ 1. The mantissa is 23 bits wide and represents the increasing negative powers of 2. For example, if we assume that the mantissa is “1110000000000000000000,” the value of this mantissa is calculated as 2À1 þ 2À2 þ 2À3 ¼ 7/8.
2510 into floating point. 34 Write the number in binary: 2:2510 ¼ 10:012 Normalize the number: 10:012 ¼ 1:0012 Â 21 Here, s ¼ 0, e – 127 ¼ 1 or e ¼ 128, and f ¼ 00100000000000000000000. (Remember that a number 1 is assumed on the left side, even though it is not shown in the calculation). 062510 into floating point. 00001100001 x 27 Here, s ¼ 0, e – 127 ¼ 7 or e ¼ 134, and f ¼ 00001100001000000000000. 3 Multiplication and Division of Floating Point Numbers Multiplication and division of floating point numbers are rather easy.
Advanced PIC Microcontroller Projects in C: From USB to ZIGBEE with the PIC 18F Series by Dogan Ibrahim